akbar administrative policy

A large number of people assembled below the balcony, presented their petitions to the emperor, besides having a fortunate glimpse of their emperor. Begun in 1570 and abandoned in 1586, Akbar’s capital of Fatehpur Sikri, near Delhi, is evidence of the resources he could command. The system on the one hand determined the income of the government and on the other hand enabled the farmers to know clearly how much revenue they had to pay to the government. Akbar’s Religious Policy. For Notes-9098676936Instagram- https://www.instagram.com/currentaffairsupdated/ Babur and Humayun had little time to take any initiative in formulating any administrative policy worth the name. He also received with enthusiasm the European pictures brought by the Jesuits, and his painters incorporated European techniques of realism and perspective into the distinctive Mughal painting style (characterized by a vivid treatment of the physical world) that began to develop during his reign. Akbar gave the Mughal India one official language (Per­sian), a uniform administrative system and coinage, and a common system of weights and measures. The share of the state was one-third of the produce of the land. He was also the head of the intelligence agencies of the empire. Three categories of Polaj and Parauti land. According to the Batai or Ghalla- Bakshi system, the producer of the farmers was divided between the government and the fanners in the ratio settled between them. According to him, “Upon the conduct of a monarch depends the efficiency of any course of action. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Akbar considered the monarchy above religion and sect and adopted a policy of reconciliation in place of the Orthodox Islamic doctrine. Babur and Humayun had little time to take any initiative in formulating any administrative policy worth the name. Significance of Akbar’s Hindu Policy: 1. Cultural unity: Cultural unity between the Hindus and the Muslims was strengthened. Panchayats looked after the village administration and also dispensed justice. He also introduced a new system of revenue collection better known as the Mansabdari system. Second, the traditional distinction between the nobility of the sword and that of the pen was abolished: civil administrators were assigned military ranks, thus becoming as dependent on the emperor as army officers. A mansabdar got his salary from the royal treasury. Akbar's policy of religious tolerance ensured that employment in the imperial administration was open to all on merit irrespective of creed, and this led to an increase in the strength of the administrative … The official elite, on the other hand, enjoyed great wealth; liberal patronage was given to painters, poets, musicians, and scholars, and luxury industries flourished. Under this system, the average produce of different crops as well as the average price prevailing over the last 10 years was calculated and accordingly land reveue was fixed. Content Guidelines 2. After the reign of Aurangzeb, the Prime Minister, then called ‘Vakil’ became very powerful. Akbar’s rule was marked by … Farmers were given the option to pay the revenue in cash or kind. The Mansab is an Arabic word meaning rank or position or status. Bairam Khan was the guardian of Akbar. e.g: Raja Birbal was a close associate of Akbar and was responsible for justice. Akbar divided his empire into fifteen provinces. These sentiments were earlier encouraged by t… This topic was modified 7 months ago by Kashyap. COMPARISON BETWEEN AKBAR AND AURANGZEB ON MUGHAL RELATIONS WITH THE RAJPUT. [Solved] Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. 04/05/2020 12:13 pm. The Mughal-style Jāmiʿ Masjid (Great Mosque) built under Akbar's reign in Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. It has also often been portrayed as a model for future governments—strong, benevolent, tolerant, and enlightened. Akbar’s administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl’s book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. During his reign, he initiated several reforms in the administrative system of the empire. This is a product of Mexus Education Pvt. There were two methods of making payments to the nobles. Usually he ruled according to Shariat (Islamic Law). He gave further offense by the religious discussions he encouraged between Muslims, Hindus, Parsis, and Christians. TOS4. Politically, the greatest merit of the system was that it enabled the emperor to offer attractive careers to the able, ambitious, and influential. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Administration of India under the Bahmani Kingdom | Indian History, Salient Features of Maratha Administration under Shivaji, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. Akbar was the centre of all powers—civil, judicial, military and religious. Akbar, as well as his mother and other members of his family, are believed to have been Sunni Hanafi Muslims. One was giving them Jagirs (land) wherefrom they got their salaries. He looked after the revenues of the state. Ministers in Mughal Administration During the reign of Akbar there were only four ministers, namely Wakil, Diwan or Wazir, Mir Bakhsi and Sadr-us-Sadur. Although their doctrines and ceremonies, known as the Divine Faith (Dīn-e Ilāhī), assigned a central place to Akbar himself, it would be an oversimplification to ascribe political motives to those developments. THE NOBILITY UNDER AKBAR AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIS RELIGIOUS POLICY, 1560 80 By Iqtidar Alam Khan The significant changes that were introduced in the organization of Mughal government and the accompanying shifts in Akbar's administrative and religious policies during the As a further safeguard against abuses, Akbar reorganized the existing network of newswriters, whose duty it was to send regular reports of important events to the emperor. Each province was under the charge of Subedar (Governor). Although that seems to have been little more than an expression of his systematic approach to problems, the orthodox were offended. Akbar's administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl's book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar. The Administrative System of Akbar holds a significant place in Indian History. Todar Mal was a brilliant revenue officer of his time. He became emperor at … Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies. He was the head of the establishment department. The petitions were promptly attended to on the spot or later in the open hall of public audience (Diwan-i-am). Land of each farmer was measured into ‘bighas’. ADMINISTRATION One of the significant contributions of Akbar’s reign was the establishment of an efficient administrative system. Akbar maintained a luxurious and brilliant court at which elaborate ceremonies emphasized his distance from other men, though he was careful to cultivate public opinion outside court circles. From the 15th century, a number of rulers in various parts of the country adopted a more liberal policy of religious tolerance, attempting to foster communal harmonybetween Hindus and Muslims. He looked after the imperial house-hold. In 1581 the discussions at the Ibadat Khana were discontinued. Akbar was an enlightened and successful administrator. Buildings at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India, c. 1571. (iv) Banjar land was left uncultivated for more than 4 years. Akbar’s reign was an example of the stimulating effects of cultural encounter. He persuaded the Muslim theologians at his court to accept him as arbiter on points of Islamic law in dispute among them. Akbar gave the post of the prime minister to Bairam Khan. Officers were paid either in cash from the emperor’s treasury or, more frequently, by the assignment of lands from which they had to collect the revenue, retaining the amount of their salary and remitting the balance to the treasury. 2) Each province also had a diwan. The system was for ten years. The Kotwal was entrusted with the maintenance of law and order in the main cities. Akbar’s Administration Policies. Those ranks were systematically graded from commanders of 10 persons to commanders of 5,000 persons, higher ranks being allotted to Mughal princes. Last Post 0. Normally state officers did not interfere in the village affairs. This system was in vogue in Thatta and in parts of Kabul and Kandhar. Rai Durga Sisodia of Rampura and Raja Todar Mal were assigned administrative tasks in the revenue department. Every morning at dawn he stood at an open window to be seen and reverenced by the people. Although Aurangzeb was an observer of Hanif ideology of traditional Muslim law in India, he did not hesitate in issuing secular laws (jurists) such as Jabavit. Such lands seem to have been transferred frequently from one officer to another; that increased the officers’ dependence on the emperor, but it may also have encouraged them to squeeze as much as they could from the peasants with whom their connection might be transitory. Akbar also seems to have instituted more-efficient revenue assessment and collection in an effort to safeguard the peasants from excessive demands and the state from loss of money. This system was called Bamboo Jarib system. 1) Akbar divided the empire into provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political and military functions. Effective government in a country as geographically vast and as socially complex as India demands a wide measure of social support. It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent Mughal rulers followed in principle the administrative policy developed by him. Therefore, as a part of his reform, he divided the empire into various subas controlled by the Subedars. (ii) Parauti land was left uncultivated after every crop to regain its productivity, (iii) Chachhar land was left uncultivated for 3 to 4 years. Akbar had a Council of Ministers to assist him in the discharge of his administrative responsibilities and state of affairs. Special consultation with the ministers and nobles were held at the hall of Special Audience (Diwan-i-khas). In the year 1576 Akbar defeated Rana Pratap in the Battle of Haldighati. First, every officer was, at least in principle, appointed and promoted by the emperor instead of by his immediate superior. In the Mansabdari system no Jagirs were granted for the purpose of paying salaries. In short, the new religion was based on common truths of all religions and rules were formulated on the rules of various religions. He introduced various reforms in all the branches of the administration, whether central, provincial, revenue, military or judicial. The second was making cash payment. That excluded the lands under tributary rulers such as the Rajputs and also the lands assigned for the maintenance of Mughal officers. The Subadar carried out … Those discussions were continued by a small group of courtiers who shared with Akbar a taste for mysticism. Yet, notwithstanding Akbar’s reforms, travelers’ accounts indicate that the Indian peasants remained impoverished. Akbar understood that need and satisfied it. Privacy Policy3. It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent Mughal rulers followed in principle the administrative policy developed by him. Thus Mansabdari was a system in which the rank of a government official was determined. Akbar also continued to maintain excellent diplomatic relationship with the Safavid rulers of Persia, which dated back to his father’s days with Shah Tahmasp I lending his military support to Humayun for recapturing Delhi. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! While Aurangzeb made the monarch the successor of Islam . Buland darwaza was built to celebrate Akbar’s victory over Gujarat. Akbar abolishes the pilgrim’s tax in 1563 and the Jariyahs in 1564 in pursuance of an active policy of tolerance. It resulted in the development of a composite culture. In 1583-84, Akbar initiated a new policy of selecting loyal Muslim and Hindu nobles for performing administrative tasks. His unprejudiced inquiries into Christian doctrines misled the Jesuit missionaries he invited to his court into thinking that he was on the point of conversion. 2. Although he seems to have been no more than 5 feet 7 inches (170 cm) tall, he impressed observers as a dominating personality. Every civil and military official was given a mansab and was called a Mansabdar. For the assessment and collection of revenue, a large number of officers like the Amil, Bitikchi, Qanungo, Muqaddam and Patwari were appointed. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. Akbar the great was the second ruler of Mughal dynasty. Administrative Units. These types of lands were divided into three grades, viz., good, average and bad. Farmers could get loans easily from the state which could be paid in easy annual installments. Akbar propounded the Din-i-Ilahi in which he incorporated the essence of all religions. He was the Supreme Commander of the army. The land was divided into four categories according to its produce: (i) Polaj land which was regularly cultivated and yielded crops regularly. Akbar hardly brought any changes in the organization of local government. Rajput Policy of Akbar. The posts of Wakil and Wazir were combined together afterwards and the holder of the post was called Vakil-i-Mutlaq. He established a centralized administration. Süleyman’s and ʿAbbās’s counterpart in the Indo-Timurid dynasty was their contemporary. The revenue officials were instructed not to be harsh with the farmers. Todar Mal was a brilliant revenue officer of his time. This covered most of the empire. He first served on Sher Shah’s court, but later … There were three systems of land revenue: This system was prevalent in the areas from Lahore to Allahabad and in Malwa and Gujarat. It was Akbar (who promoted the syncretic religion called Dīn-i Ilāhī) during whose reign the religious policy of the Mughals were formulated. Akbar combated those trends by instituting comprehensive reforms that involved two fundamental changes. Central Administration: Akbar was the overall in-charge of the central government. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Akbar also supported state workshops for the production of high-quality textiles and ornaments. Emperor Akbar’s administration system was built on systematic imperial policies which survived several generations. Akbar was an artisan, warrior, artist, armourer, administrator carpenter, emperor, general, inventor, animal trainer, technologist. Akbar’s administrative system can be grouped under two heads: Central Administration Provincial Administration All appointments, promotions or dismissals depended on his decision and orders. A record of all the holdings and liabilities of every farmer was maintained. With the help of Raja Todar Mal, Akbar experimented on the land revenue administration, which was completed in 1580. He first served on Sher Shah’s court, but later … Therefore, the administrative machinery began to slip out from the control of the emperor which contributed to the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Akbar was a diplomatic King or great statesman. The Zabti system proved very useful both to the state and the farmers. He was assisted by a ‘Diwan’ who looked after the revenue records. Physically, he was strong and could withstand hardship on campaigns. Provinces were divided into Sarkars, Sarkars into Parganas and Parganas into villages. He coordinated the work of all other ministers. The provincial ministers and officers followed the nomenclature of the central administration and performed similar duties. In bad seasons, remissions of revenues were granted to the farmers. In this video you will learn about the administrative policies followed by Akbar and the officials in his kingdom. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. Extension and strengthening of Akbar’s empire: The cooperation of the Hindus who formed the majority of Akbar’s subjects helped him in the extension and strengthening of his empire. The land was measured by means of bamboos joined together with iron rings. They were allowed to hold their ancestral territories, provided that they acknowledged Akbar as emperor, paid tribute, supplied troops when required, and concluded a marriage alliance with him. Similarly, he commissioned the translation of Sanskrit classics into Persian and gave illustrated copies to his courtiers. Other important high officials who assisted the king were Mir Atish who supervised the artillery, Daroga-i-Taksal, supervisor of royal mint and Daroga-i-Daak, supervisor of the mail. Clearly, although he was illiterate, he had a powerful and original mind. The Rajput policy of Akbar was unique as it not only helped to end the long drawn conflict between the Rajputs and Mughal ruler but also helped Akbar in the consolidation of his empire. Farmers were issued receipts for all the payments made by them. Previous Indian governments had been weakened by two disintegrating tendencies characteristic of premodern states—one of armies being split up into the private forces of individual commanders and the other of provincial governors becoming hereditary local rulers. Therefore, he was able to win the goodwill of the Rajput who became staunch supporters of the Empire. His gratitude to God should be shown in just government and due recognition of merit.”, image source: aura.edu.in/read/icse/icse-7/history_and_civics/original/Page-066.jpg. These were: Agra, Ahmedabad, Ahmednagar, Ajmer, Allahabad, Awadh, Bengal, Berar, Bihar, Delhi, Kabul, Khandar, Lahore, Malwa and Multan. Akbar followed the same feudal policy toward the other Rajput chiefs. Akbar’s infallible administrative system proves his very wise acumen for bringing about greater changes in the political chaos of a country which was an amalgamation of a … Todar Mai, the revenue minister of Akbar played an important role in devising and introducing a very effective and efficient land revenue and record system. His early days were spent in the backdrop of an atmosphere in which liberal sentiments were encouraged and religious narrow-mindedness was frowned upon. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. The Subadar carried out … Akbar's reign was chronicled by his court historian Abul Fazal in the books Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari. Its combination of Hindu and Muslim architectural styles symbolizes the contact of cultures that he encouraged. The Subadar carried out … Bakshi looked after the needs of the army. He was like the Prime Minister and advised the king in all matters. Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Administration, Administration of Akbar. Now the farmers had direct link with the government and they were saved from the excesses and tyrannies of the landlords and the jagirdars. He also looked after the control of the royal body guards and etiquettes in the court. With this edict, Akbar’s judgment was set above every legal and religious authority, so it was the promulgation of the doctrine of Imperial infallibility. Akbar’s day started with his appearance at the Jharokha (balcony) of the palace. Important features of Akbar’s administration are given below: Akbar’s ideal of Kingship. In describing the rules Akbar emphasized on peace and tolerance. But such efficiency could only have been enforced in the areas directly administered by the central government. It consisted of three volumes which give detail information about Akbar’s ancestors, the important events during Akbar’s reign, and a record of his administrative system called Ain-i Akbari respectively. Akbar gave the Mughal India one official language (Persian), a uniform administrative system and coinage and a common system of weights and measures. The farmers could deposit the land revenue direct to the treasury. Following were some of the chief features of the system. Akbar adopted a liberal religious policy. Abul Fazl,wrote a manuscript on the history of Akbar’s reign called as Akbar Nama. Akbar was not only a brave soldier, a successful leader and a great religious reformer but also a great administrator. Likewise other Ministers became powerful. Akbar’s reforms required a centralized financial system, and, thus, by the side of each provincial governor (sūbadār, later called nawab) was placed a civil administrator (dīwān, or divan) who supervised revenue collection, prepared accounts, and reported directly to the emperor. In that way, Akbar was able to enlist the loyal services of many Rajput princes. Qazi looked after justice. The wide and sweeping conquests of Mughal emperor Akbar are an eloquent testimony to his extraordinary military talents. Akbar's administrative policies were mentioned in Abul Fazl's book the Akbar Nama, particularly in its third and last volume, the Ain-i Akbari In the book Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into provinces known as Subas, governed by a Subadar.

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