what is cottony maple scale

What makes management of this scale more difficult is the fact that insecticide applications may actually cause the scale problem to continue longer than normal. Columbus, Ohio 43210 Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. View our privacy policy. The crawlers walk onto the leaves and tend to attach alongside the major leaf veins, usually on the underside. One of the insects we see on rare occasion in Iowa is the cottony maple scale. The most important predators are several black lady beetles. CFAES Diversity  |  Nondiscrimination notice  |  Site Map. Severely infested trees appear as though they were covered with a string of popcorn. They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Some of the leaves look like they are being eaten by the fungus. 1). Normally, this peculiar scale is a mere curiosity and a nuisance. CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. Cottony maple scales are occasionally confused with a close relative, the cottony maple leaf scale, Pulvinaria acericola. Cottony taxus scale is a soft scale (produces a thin, waxy outer covering attached to insect) as opposed to a hard scale (produces a harder, outer shell not attached to the insect). Maple cotton scale is found on several other common hardwood trees such as ash, elm and boxelder. Its favored host is silver maple, Acer saccharinum. Honeydew promotes the growth of a black sooty mold, that imparts a blackened appearance to leaves, twigs, branches, and other substrates beneath an infested host plant. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Save For Later Print Available in Spanish. Consequently, they may not be effective where several l… Additionally, an unsightly fungus called "sooty mold" begins to develop on the honeydew, turning the leaf surface a gray-black color which, in turn, may hinder photosynthesis. They are slightly convex and are brown with a yellow-brown ridge down the back (Figure 1). Leaves may turn yellow and drop prematurely. For technical support please contact the CFAES Helpdesk. Cottony Maple Scale starts off as an unnoticeable, brown scale. In the spring, a white egg sac is developed and holds many crawlers (insect). This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. Here, the nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew and grow by molting once. Cottony maple leaf scale females form their ovisacs on leaves, not on branches. Although a heavy infestation may cause some thinning of the canopy, it rarely results in tree death. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. They hatch into crawlers (first instar nymphs) from mid-June through mid-July, and migrate to the underside of host plant foliage where they insert their piercing-sucking mouthparts. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be … Symptoms & Life Cycle The scale, adults and nymphs, sucks sap and weaken plants. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. Application of soaps or oils should be made in mid-July and again in early August, if additional crawlers are found. Every 5 to 10 years we experience an "outbreak" of cottony maple scale somewhere in the state. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. Heavy infestations can result in branch dieback and in rare instances, tree death. Fig. 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. Cottony Maple Scale is starting to hatch in the Treasure Valley. When the sap begins to flow in the spring, the females continue to feed and grow, producing considerable amounts of honeydew. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Soaps and horticultural oils can be very effective in managing the freshly settled crawlers. In some cases, premature loss of foliage may result from an infestation of this soft scale insect. The crawlers, or immature scale insects, produce large amounts of honeydew while feeding on leaves. The white cottony egg masses, which resemble popcorn, are the most distinguishing feature of this scale. ; willow, Salix spp . Did you know this is actually an insect? They are firmly attached to the twigs and branches of various trees and may be ¼ to ⅜ inch in diameter. The rest of the time the scale is present but in numbers too low to attract attention. Q: I have what I think is a fungus on the underside of my red maple. The cottony maple scale is a large, flat, brown scale insect found on the twigs and branches of various trees. Here, they reinsert their mouthparts and settle down for the remainder of their life. Honeydew is the excess water and sugar excreted by many plant-sap-feeding insects. Crawlers may be managed with an application of a registered insecticide made in late June and repeated according to label directions in early July. These materials also have minimal adverse effects on the adult lady beetles and parasites already in settled crawlers. They feed by withdrawing sap from vascular cells of the plant. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. As honeydew collects on leaves and branches, bees, wasps and ants are attracted to the area to feed. Male scales are tiny, winged insects. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. Just before leaf drop in the fall, nymphs move back to host plant twigs and branches to overwinter. Dormant oil sprays have been traditionally used to manage many scales on ornamental trees. Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Insecticidal soaps or 1.5 percent horticultural oil must be applied thoroughly to the leaves, both to the underside and upper surfaces, in order to kill the scales. During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. Inappropriate timing is not only ineffective, but Always follow the pesticide label. CFAES COVID-19 Resources:   Safe and Healthy Buckeyes   |   COVID-19 Hub   |   CFAES Calendar. A favored host is silver maple, but it will attack other species of maple as well. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 There are several predators and parasitoids that will naturally keep cottony maple scale populations in check. It is commonly mistaken for "plant sap" being dropped on cars, sidewalks and lawn furniture lying under trees. Copyright © 2015, The Ohio State University, David J. Shetlar and Jennifer E. Andon, Department of Entomology, ©  2020 The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. Mature female scales are brown, roundish, and about one-quarter inch in … If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. Cottony Maple Scale Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. Pulvinaria innumerabilis. Mature cottony maple scales are small, flat, oval, brown insects without obvious legs, antennae or wings. Some of the leaves look like they are being eaten by the fungus. The female completes development in June and lays egg masses through late summer. The fungus is on almost every leaf. At maturity, the females produce the white, cottony egg masses, called ovisacs, over a period of several weeks. Books Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best Sellers Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best ; birch, Betula spp. Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. The most common one, Hyperaspis signata, has a larva that looks like a mealybug. These pesticides, again, often need to be applied in sufficient spray quantity to wet both the leaf upper and lower surfaces to be effective. ; sycamore, Platanus spp . These tiny crawlers are small, flat, oval insects with two distinct eyes, short antennae and tiny legs. Phone: 614-292-6181, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. Scales tend to thrive on stressed plants. The developing females and nymphs produce copious amounts of honeydew which can collect on foliage and branches and cause growth of sooty mold. Unfortunately, many maples are sensitive to these oil sprays and significant small branch dieback or spring leaf drop can occur if the dormant oil is applied after the maple sap has begun to flow. A close examination of the ovisacs reveals the eggs are held inside a sack-like matrix of sticky, silk-like material. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Cottony Maple Scale. ; hackberry, Celtis spp. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. Soft scales feed in vascular components of plants. Damage to the host tree is caused when heavy populations of cottony maple scale withdraw sap from the plant, resulting in branch and twig dieback. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. It has been reported on over a dozen species of trees, but is most common on silver and red maple. ; elm, Ulmus spp. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. Under severe conditions an infestation may kill the entire tree. We work with families and children, farmers and businessowners, community leaders and elected officials to build better lives, better businesses and better communities to make Ohio great. Cottony maple scale Pulvinaria innumerabilis. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. It looks like white puffs of rice with a black spot on one side of the puff. Second instar cottony maple scale nymphs. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE . After mating, the males die and the females soon withdraw their mouthparts and crawl back onto small twigs and branches. The crawler's waste is called honeydew. The cottony maple leaf scale is so named because the females exude their eggs in an elongated, white, cottony structure called an ovisac which are stuck onto the underside of leaves.

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